How To Plant And Care For African Milk Tree

The African Milk Tree, scientifically known as Euphorbia trigona, is a striking succulent that belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family.

Originating from Central Africa, the African Milk Tree is appreciated for its distinctive, cactus-like appearance, featuring tall, branching stems with thorns and small leaves.

This guide is designed to provide valuable insights into cultivating, nurturing, and maintaining the African Milk Tree, offering information for both new plant enthusiasts and experienced gardeners.

African Milk Tree Quick Guide

African Milk Tree
African Milk Tree
Common NameAfrican Milk Tree, Cathedral Cactus, Abyssinian Euphorbia
Botanical NameEuphorbia trigona
Plant TypeSucculent, cactus-like shrub
Native toCentral and West Africa
Soil NeedsWell-draining soil, cactus mix recommended
Sunlight NeedsBright, indirect light
Growing ZonesSuited for USDA zones 10-11
Height/SpreadCan reach up to 6-8 feet in height, 2-3 feet spread
Pot Type NeedsWell-suited for containers, indoor or outdoor planting
Soil pH NeedsSlightly acidic to neutral (pH 6.0-7.0)
ColorsGreen stems with distinctive reddish-purple edges
Where to PlantIndoors as a houseplant, or in well-drained outdoor areas
PestsOccasionally susceptible to spider mites or mealybugs
DiseasesProne to root rot in excessively wet conditions
Growth HabitUpright, branching stems with a cactus-like appearance
ToxicityMilky latex sap is toxic; handle with care
PropagationStem cuttings or offsets
MaintenanceLow-maintenance, avoid overwatering, periodic pruning for shape
Drought TolerantHighly drought-tolerant
LifespanLong-lived, thriving for many years with proper care
Watering NeedsAllow the soil to dry between waterings
Feeding NeedsLight feeding during the growing season with a balanced fertilizer
FlowersInconspicuous, small, and greenish-yellow
Flowering SeasonTypically blooms in late winter to early spring
Leaf ShapeNarrow, lanceolate
Leaf SizeAbout 6-12 inches in length
The African Milk Tree produces inconspicuous, small, greenish-yellow flowers and has narrow, lanceolate leaves, contributing to its unique appearance.

Why You Should Grow African Milk Tree

Growing the African Milk Tree (Euphorbia trigona) can be a rewarding experience for several reasons:

  1. Unique Appearance:
    • The African Milk Tree is visually striking, with upright stems that can resemble a candelabra or columnar structure.
    • Varieties like “Red Ruby,” “Royal Red,” and “Candy Corn Plant” add vibrant colors to your plant collection.
  2. Low Maintenance:
    • Euphorbia trigona is known for its resilience and adaptability, making it a suitable choice for both beginner and experienced gardeners.
    • It requires minimal care and can tolerate periods of neglect.
  3. Drought Tolerance:
    • As a succulent, the African Milk Tree stores water in its stems, making it well-suited for dry conditions.
    • It can withstand periods of drought, and its water storage adaptation makes it a hardy plant.
  4. Indoor and Outdoor Versatility:
    • While it can thrive indoors, the African Milk Tree can also be grown in outdoor gardens in regions with a suitable climate.
    • It’s an excellent choice for those with limited outdoor space who still want a visually appealing plant.
  5. Varied Varieties:
    • The plant comes in various cultivars and varieties with unique features, allowing you to choose one that fits your aesthetic preferences.
    • Variegated varieties like “Variegata” and those with colorful stems offer diversity in appearance.
  6. Fast Growth: Some varieties, like “African Milk Candelabra,” are known for their relatively fast growth, allowing you to witness noticeable changes in your plant over time.
  7. Educational Value:
    • Growing the African Milk Tree provides an opportunity to learn about succulent care and the unique features of Euphorbia plants.
    • It’s a great plant for introducing gardening concepts to children or beginners.
  8. Adaptable to Different Environments:
    • The African Milk Tree can adapt to various light conditions, although it generally prefers bright, indirect light.
    • Its adaptability makes it suitable for different environments within your home.
  9. Conversation Starter: The plant’s unique appearance and growth habits often make it a conversation starter among plant enthusiasts and visitors.
  10. Symbolism: In some cultures, succulents, including Euphorbia trigona, are associated with endurance and resilience, making them meaningful additions to your plant collection.

While the African Milk Tree offers several benefits, it’s important to handle it with care due to the latex it produces, which can be irritating to the skin and eyes.

Providing well-draining soil and avoiding overwatering are key aspects of successful African Milk Tree care.

The African Milk Tree Varieties

The African Milk Tree Varieties
Grow African Milk Tree

The African Milk Tree, scientifically known as Euphorbia trigona, is a succulent plant native to Africa. There are several varieties and cultivars of Euphorbia trigona, each with unique characteristics.

Here are some popular varieties:

Standard African Milk Tree:

The classic Euphorbia trigona features tall, green stems with a cactus-like appearance. Its upright growth and occasional spines make it a striking addition to any succulent collection.

Red African Milk Tree:

This variation exhibits a reddish or purplish tint, especially on new growth. The infusion of warm tones adds visual interest and contrasts beautifully with the green stems.

Variegated African Milk Tree:

Variegated varieties showcase patterns of white or yellow along the edges or surfaces of the stems, creating a visually stunning and unique aesthetic.

Miniature African Milk Tree:

Ideal for limited spaces, the miniature variety offers the same distinctive features but in a more compact form, making it suitable for smaller indoor environments.

Crested African Milk Tree:

A rare and sought-after variation, the crested variety displays abnormal, flattened growth patterns, creating a captivating crest or fan-shaped appearance.

Golden African Milk Tree:

The golden variety features stems with a yellowish or golden hue, adding a warm and radiant touch to your succulent collection.

Silver African Milk Tree:

Silver-toned varieties may display a silvery sheen on the stems, contributing to a cool and elegant color palette in your succulent garden.

Bronze African Milk Tree:

With stems taking on a bronze or coppery tint, this variety introduces a rich and earthy color variation to your succulent display.

Albino African Milk Tree:

Albino varieties lack chlorophyll, resulting in pale or white stems. While these require special care due to their lack of photosynthesis, they offer a unique charm.

Monstrous African Milk Tree:

The monstrous variety showcases irregular and exaggerated growth patterns, creating a fascinating and otherworldly appearance that stands out in any collection.

When cultivating African Milk Trees, provide well-draining soil, ample sunlight, and be mindful of their toxic latex sap.

Each variety brings its own charm, allowing succulent enthusiasts to curate a diverse and visually stunning assortment.

How To Buy African Milk Plant From Nursey

Buy African Milk Tree
Buy African Milk Plant

When buying an African Milk Tree (Euphorbia trigona) from a nursery, consider the following steps:

  1. Research Local Nurseries: Identify nurseries in your local area or online that specialize in succulents, cacti, or houseplants. You can search online, ask for recommendations from local gardening communities, or visit garden centers.
  2. Check Reviews and Ratings: Before making a purchase, check reviews and ratings of the nurseries you are considering. This can provide insights into the quality of their plants and customer satisfaction.
  3. Visit the Nursery (if local): If the nursery is local, consider visiting in person. This allows you to inspect the African Milk Tree plants firsthand, assess their health, and choose the one that meets your preferences.
  4. Online Ordering: If buying online, choose a reputable online nursery. Ensure they have a secure website for transactions and a clear return policy in case of any issues with the plant upon arrival.
  5. Verify Plant Quality: Look for signs of a healthy plant, such as vibrant green color, firm stems, and no visible signs of pests or diseases. Avoid plants with wilted or yellowing sections.
  6. Size and Growth Stage: Consider the size of the African Milk Tree you want and its growth stage. Some people prefer smaller plants for easy accommodation, while others may prefer more mature ones.
  7. Check Soil and Potting: Ensure that the plant is potted in well-draining soil appropriate for succulents. Check the condition of the pot, and make sure it has drainage holes to prevent overwatering.
  8. Shipping Considerations: If ordering online, check the nursery’s shipping policies. Choose a shipping option that minimizes transit time to reduce stress on the plant.
  9. Review Care Instructions: Before purchasing, review care instructions provided by the nursery. Ensure that you are comfortable with the care requirements of the African Milk Tree.
  10. Inspect for Pests: Examine the plant for any signs of pests or diseases. Common pests for succulents include spider mites and mealybugs.
  11. Ask Questions: If you have any questions about the African Milk Tree or its care, don’t hesitate to ask the nursery staff. They can provide valuable information and tips.
  12. Keep Receipt and Documentation: Keep a copy of your receipt and any documentation provided by the nursery. This can be helpful in case you need to refer to care instructions or address any issues.

By following these steps, you can increase the likelihood of purchasing a healthy and thriving African Milk Tree for your home.

How To Plant African Milk Tree

Plant African Milk
Plant African Milk Tree

Materials Needed:

  1. African Milk Tree plant
  2. Well-draining cactus or succulent potting mix
  3. Suitable pot with drainage holes
  4. Pebbles or broken terracotta pieces (for additional drainage)
  5. Water can
  6. Optional: gloves (to protect against latex sap)


Planting an African Milk Tree (Euphorbia trigona) involves careful consideration of its growth habits and the right conditions for its well-being.
Here’s a step-by-step guide:

Select a Suitable Pot:

Pick a pot that has holes at the bottom so the water can drain out and not build up. The pot should be slightly larger than the root ball of the African Milk Tree to allow for growth.

Prepare the Potting Mix:

Prepare the Soil

Use a well-draining cactus or succulent potting mix. You can enhance drainage by adding pebbles or broken terracotta pieces to the bottom of the pot.

Wear Gloves (Optional):

African Milk Trees contain latex sap, which can be irritating to the skin. Wearing gloves is optional but can be a good precaution.

Remove the Plant from its Nursery Pot:

Gently tap the bottom and sides of the nursery pot to loosen the soil. Carefully slide the plant out, supporting the base of the stem, and avoid pulling on the plant.

Inspect the Roots:

Check the roots to see if there are any signs of rot or damage. Trim away any unhealthy roots with clean, sharp scissors or pruning shears.

Position in the Pot:

Place the African Milk Tree in the center of the pot, ensuring that the top of the root ball sits slightly below the rim of the pot. This prevents water from spilling over.

Fill with Potting Mix:

Surround the plant with the prepared potting mix, gently pressing it down to provide stability. Keep some room at the top for when you water the plant.


Watering Practices

Give the plant a good amount of water and let any extra water flow out from the bottom of the pot. After planting, let the soil dry out slightly before the next watering.

Choose the Right Location:

Put the pot in a spot where there’s lots of light, but not directly from the sun. African Milk Trees thrive in sunlight but should be protected from harsh, direct sunlight, especially in the afternoon.

Monitor and Adjust:

Keep an eye on the plant’s growth and adjust care as needed. These plants prefer slightly drier conditions, so avoid overwatering.

Fertilization (Optional):


African Milk Trees generally don’t require frequent fertilization. You can use a diluted, balanced liquid fertilizer during the growing season (spring and summer) if desired.

Protect from Cold Temperatures:

If you live in a region with cold temperatures, protect the African Milk Tree from frost. These plants are sensitive to cold and should be kept indoors during winter in colder climates.

By following these steps, you can ensure a successful planting process for your African Milk Tree. Regular monitoring and proper care will contribute to its health and vibrancy.

How To Care For African Milk Tree

Care For African Milk Tree
Care For African Milk Tree

Caring for an African Milk Tree (Euphorbia trigona) involves providing the right conditions to ensure its health and well-being.

Here’s a comprehensive guide:


African Milk Trees thrive in bright, indirect light. They can tolerate some direct sunlight but should be protected from intense, prolonged sun exposure, especially in the afternoon.


Maintain a warm environment. African Milk Trees prefer temperatures between 65°F to 75°F (18°C to 24°C) during the day and no lower than 50°F (10°C) at night.


Allow the soil to dry out between waterings. Water the plant thoroughly, but make sure excess water drains away to prevent waterlogging. In winter, reduce watering frequency.


Use a well-draining cactus or succulent potting mix. This type of soil prevents water from accumulating around the roots.


African Milk Trees can adapt to different humidity levels but prefer average indoor humidity. They don’t ask for much in this way.


Feed sparingly. Use a balanced, diluted liquid fertilizer during the growing season (spring and summer) at half the recommended strength. Avoid fertilizing in fall and winter.


Trim a little bit to keep the plant’s shape and get rid of any branches that are dead or broken. Wear gloves when handling the plant, as the latex sap can be irritating to the skin.


Repot when the plant outgrows its current container, typically every 2-3 years. Pick a pot that’s a bit bigger and has holes at the bottom so water can drain out easily.

Pest Control:

Keep an eye out for pests like spider mites and scale. If you find any, use soapy water or neem oil to treat the problem. Quarantine new plants before introducing them to prevent pest infestations.

Protection from Cold:

Protect the African Milk Tree from cold temperatures and frost. Move it indoors during winter if you live in a region with cold winters.

Common Issues:

  • Overwatering is a common issue. Watering it again when the soil is dry.
  • Wilting can indicate both overwatering and underwatering. Adjust watering accordingly.


African Milk Trees produce a milky latex sap that can be irritating to the skin and toxic if ingested. Handle with care, and keep them out of reach of children and pets.

By following these care guidelines, you can help your African Milk Tree thrive and enjoy its unique beauty for years to come.

Regular monitoring and adjustments based on its specific needs will contribute to a healthy and vibrant plant.

Pests and Diseases


  1. Spider Mites:
    • Identification: Tiny red or brown mites that create webbing on the plant.
    • Treatment: Rinse the plant with water to reduce mite populations. Use insecticidal soap or neem oil for persistent infestations.
  2. Scale Insects:
    • Identification: Small, immobile pests that attach themselves to the plant, resembling tiny brown or tan discs.
    • Treatment: Remove scale insects manually with a soft brush or cloth. Apply neem oil or insecticidal soap.
  3. Mealybugs:
    • Identification: Small, cotton-like insects found in clusters on the plant.
    • Treatment: Wipe off mealybugs with a cotton swab dipped in rubbing alcohol. You can also use neem oil or soapy water to help get rid of the bugs.


  1. Root Rot:
    • Cause: Overwatering and poorly draining soil can lead to root rot.
    • Symptoms: Yellowing leaves, wilting, and a foul smell from the soil.
    • Treatment: Allow the soil to dry out, repot in well-draining soil, and reduce watering.
  2. Powdery Mildew:
    • Cause: High humidity combined with poor air circulation.
    • Symptoms: White, powdery substance on leaves.
    • Treatment: Improve air circulation, reduce humidity, and apply fungicidal spray.
  3. Leaf Spot:
    • Cause: Fungal infections favored by high humidity.
    • Symptoms: Dark spots with yellow halos on leaves.
    • Treatment: Remove affected leaves, improve air circulation, and use fungicidal treatments.
  4. Bacterial Soft Rot:
    • Cause: Bacterial infection due to overwatering or wounds.
    • Symptoms: Soft, water-soaked areas on stems or branches.
    • Treatment: Prune affected areas, improve drainage, and avoid overwatering.

Preventive Measures:

  1. Optimal Watering:
    • Let the soil get dry before watering again to avoid problems with the roots.
    • Use soil in the pot that lets water drain easily to prevent it from getting too wet.
  2. Humidity Control:
    • Provide adequate air circulation to reduce humidity around the plant.
    • Avoid overcrowding with other plants to prevent moisture buildup.
  3. Quarantine New Plants:
    • Isolate new plants before introducing them to your collection to prevent potential pest infestations.
  4. Regular Inspections:
    • Periodically inspect the plant for signs of pests or diseases.
    • Deal with problems quickly to stop them from spreading.

By implementing these pest and disease management strategies, you can maintain the health and vitality of your African Milk Tree (Euphorbia trigona) and ensure it thrives in optimal conditions.

Regular monitoring and early intervention are key components of effective plant care.

Pros and Cons of Growing The African Milk Tree

Growing The African Milk Tree
Growing The African Milk Tree
Pros of Growing The African Milk TreeCons of Growing The African Milk Tree:
Low Maintenance:Toxic Sap:
The African Milk Tree is relatively easy to care for, making it suitable for both beginners and experienced succulent enthusiasts. It can thrive with minimal attention.The plant’s latex sap is toxic and can cause skin irritation. Care should be taken when handling the African Milk Tree, and it is advisable to keep it away from pets and small children.
Unique Appearance:Space Requirements:
The plant’s distinctive cactus-like appearance with upright, segmented stems adds a unique and visually appealing element to indoor or outdoor gardens.The plant can grow quite tall, and its upright stems may require adequate space. In indoor settings, regular pruning may be necessary to control its size.
Drought Tolerance:Thorns and Spines:
Adapted to arid conditions, the African Milk Tree is drought-tolerant and can withstand periods of water scarcity. This feature makes it suitable for environments with irregular watering schedules.Some varieties may have thorns or spines, posing a risk of injury. Handling the plant with care and placing it in locations where accidental contact is unlikely is essential.
Versatility:Limited Flowering:
The plant can be grown both indoors and outdoors, allowing flexibility in choosing its placement. It adapts well to various climates and can be potted or planted in the ground.While the African Milk Tree can produce small, inconspicuous flowers, it is not primarily grown for its flowering display. Individuals seeking plants with prominent blooms may find other options more suitable.
Air-Purifying Qualities:Sensitive to Cold Temperatures:
Like many succulents, the African Milk Tree has air-purifying properties, helping to filter and improve indoor air quality by removing certain toxins.The African Milk Tree is sensitive to cold temperatures and frost. In regions with colder climates, it may be challenging to grow outdoors without adequate protection during winter.
Propagation Ease:Susceptibility to Pests:
Propagation through cuttings is relatively straightforward, making it accessible for individuals interested in expanding their succulent collection or sharing with others.Like many succulents, the African Milk Tree may be susceptible to common pests such as mealybugs or spider mites. Keep an eye on your plants regularly, and use the right methods to control pests when needed.
When considering the African Milk Tree for your plant collection, weighing these pros and cons will help you make an informed decision based on your preferences and care capabilities.


The African Milk Tree is an attention-grabbing succulent that can add a touch of exotic beauty to your indoor or outdoor garden.

With proper care and attention to its specific needs, this unique plant can thrive and become a captivating focal point.


Can the African Milk Tree tolerate low light conditions?

While it prefers bright light, it can adapt to partial shade, but growth may be slower.

How often should I water the African Milk plant?

Give the African Milk Tree plant a little water and let the soil dry between waterings, especially in the quiet winter months when the plant is not growing much.

Is the sap of the African Milk Tree toxic?

Yes, the sap is toxic. Handle the plant with care, and avoid contact with skin and eyes.

Can I grow the African Milk Tree outdoors?

Yes, it can be grown outdoors in regions with a warm climate, provided it is protected from cold temperatures.

How tall can the African Milk Tree grow?

t can reach heights of up to 6 feet or more, depending on growing conditions and care.

What type of soil is best for the African Milk Tree?

Use a well-draining succulent mix to prevent waterlogging and ensure proper aeration for the roots.

How often should I fertilize the African Milk Tree?

Apply a diluted, balanced succulent fertilizer every 4-6 weeks during the growing season.

Author Profile

Leafy Lines
Leafy Lines
Step into the world of plants and flowers brought to you by Leafy Lines, a devoted gardening lover and someone who enjoys playing with words about all things botanical.
With a love for nature and a talent for growing things, Leafy Lines is here to be your companion in the vibrant world of plants and gardening.
Leafy Lines started a gardening adventure driven by a passion to create, nurture, and feel connected to the earth. From the initial steps into potting soil to the thriving garden today, the path has been filled with trying new things, gaining knowledge, and a profound recognition of the therapeutic joys that come with gardening.

Leave a Comment

Lollipop Plant Care The Ultimate Guide to Palm Plants